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In musical set theory, a Z-relation is a relation between two sets in which the two sets have the same interval content (i.e. they have the same "interval vector"), but they are of different Tn-type and Tn/TnI-type.

For example, the two sets {0,1,4,6} and (0,1,3,7} have the same interval vector (<1,1,1,1,1,1>) but they are not transpositionally or inversionally related.

The term originated with Allen Forte, in his Structure of Atonal Music (ISBN 0300021208).