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Wǔchāng (武昌) is one of the three towns, together with Hankou (汉口) and Hanyang (汉阳), which are included in modern day Wuhan, the capital of the Hubei province, in China. Along with the other two sister towns, it stands at the mouth of the Han River, and is situated on the right bank of the river Yangtze.

At the end of the Qing Empire, Wuchang was the capital of the combined provinces of Hubei and Hunan, called the 'two Hu' or Huguang. It was the seat of the provincial government of Huguang, at the head of which was a viceroy. Next to Nanjing and Guangzhou, it was one of the most important vice-royalties in the empire. It possessed an arsenal and a mint. The provincial government established ironworks for the manufacture of rails and other railway material. As the works did not pay under official management, they were transferred to the director-general of railways. Wuchang was not open to foreign trade and residence, but a considerable number of missionaries, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, lived within the walls. The native population was estimated at 800 000 around 1911, including cities on both banks. At that time, Wuchang was an important junction on the trunk railway from Beijing to Guangzhou; and was on the route of the Sichuan railway.

In Wuchang on October 10, 1911, a revolt broke out against the Qing Dynasty. This event, now called the Wuchang Uprising, led to the development of the Republic of China.