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Partitions of Poland
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Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland (more correctly the partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a Polish sovereign state. They involved Prussia, Russia and Austria dividing up the Polish lands between themselves. The three partitions occurred:

The term "Fourth Partition" may refer to one of a number of subsequent divisions of the Polish lands, specifically:

Table of contents
1 Prelude
2 First Partition
3 Second Partition
4 Third Partition
5 Consequences

Prelude

In traditional history one can find the claim that the regional powers partitioned Poland-Lithuania because of the degeneration of the state and because of the inability of the Poles to rule themselves. Apart from the unkind implications of that view, one can discount this suggestion, since the darkest period of Polish history and the nadir in the degeneration of the state occurred in the first half of the 18th century, whereas the partitions happened when Poland had started (slowly) to recover - in fact one can see the last two partitions as a direct answer to reforms in Poland-Lithuania.

In other words, the partitions did not happen because Poland was a degenerate, weak and backward country; rather, Poland suffered partitioning because it was weak, backward, and tried to reform itself.

One could characterise Poland-Lithuania before the partitions as already not a completely sovereign state: in modern terms it comprised a Russian satellite state, with Russian Tsars effectively choosing the Polish kings.

The neighbours of Poland, Prussia, Austria and Russia, signed a secret agreement in order to maintain the status quo: specifically, to ensure that Polish laws would not change. Their alliance later became known as the "Alliance of the Three Black Eagles", because all three states used a black eagle as a state symbol (in contrast to the white eagle, a symbol of Poland).

The Poles tried to expel foreign forces in an uprising (the Confederation of Bar, 1768-1772), but the irregular and poorly commanded forces had no chance in face of the regular Russian army and suffered crushing defeat.

First Partition

TODO Why it happened, reforms in Sejm

On February 19, 1772, the agreement of partition was signed in Vienna. A previous agreement between Prussia and Russia had been made in St. Petersburg on February 6, 1772. Early in August the Russian, Prussian and Austrian troops simultaneously entered Poland and occupied the provinces agreed upon among themselves. On August 5, 1772, the occupation manifesto was issued; much to the consternation of a country too exhausted by the heroic endeavors of the Confederation of Bar to offer further resistance.

The regiments of the Confederation, whose executive board had been forced to leave Austria after that country joined the Prusso-Russian conspiracy, did not lay down their arms. Every fortress in their command held out to the very last round of ammunition and the last ounce of food. Famous was the defense of Tyniec, which lasted until the end of March 1773, and also that of Czestochowa commanded by Pulaski. Cracow fell on April 28th, captured by the Russian general Suvorov who exiled the heroic garrison to Siberia. Neither France nor England, upon whom such great hopes had been based, helped in a sufficient measure or protested when the partition was executed. So came to a tragic end the noble but ill-organized attempt of patriotic Poland to save itself from foreign aggression. It had cost about a hundred thousand men and once more laid the unfortunate country waste, it was the first demonstration of the reviving national conscience, the first armed protest before the eyes of Europe against outrage and unheard of oppression.

The dismemberment treaty was ratified by its signatories on September 22, 1772. Frederick was elated with his success; Kaunitz was proud of wresting as large a share as he did, with the rich salt mines of Bochnia and Wieliczka; and Catherine was also very satisfied. By this "diplomatic document" Russia came into possession of that section of Livonia which had still remained in Polish hands, and of White Russia embracing the counties of Vitebsk, Polotsk and Mscislav; Prussia took Warmia and West Prussia as far as the Netze and embracing the county of Pomerania, without the city of Gdansk, the counties of Malbork, Chelmno, without the City of Torun, and some districts in Greater Poland; and to Austria fell Zator and Oswiecim, part of Little Poland embracing parts of the counties of Cracow and Sandomir and a great portion of Ruthenia in other words, the whole of Galicia, less the City of Cracow. By this partition Poland lost about 30% of her territory, amounting at that time to about 484,000 square miles, and about four million of her people. The largest share of the spoils, as far as population and revenue were concerned, went to Austria.

After having occupied their respective territories, the three partitioning powers demanded that the King and the Sejm approve their action. The King appealed to the nations of Western Europe for help and tarried with the convocation of the Sejm. When, as usual no help was forthcoming and the armies of the combined enemies occupied Warsaw to compel by force of arms the calling of the assembly, no alternative could be chosen save passive submission to their will. Those of the senators who advised against this desperate step were arrested and exiled to Siberia by the representatives of the Tsarina. The local land assemblies refused to elect Deputies to the Sejm, and after great difficulties less than half of the regular number of representatives came to attend the session, most of them men of degraded character, led by Adam Lodzia Poninski, the commander of the Malta Order, a cynic and notorious gambler, willing to undertake anything for money. In order to prevent the disruption of the Sejm and the defeat of the purpose of the despoilers he undertook to turn the regular Sejm into a Sejm of a Confederacy, where majority rule prevailed. In spite of the dramatic efforts of Tadeusz Reytan, Samuel Korsak and others to prevent it, the deed was accomplished with the aid of Michael Radziwill and the dishonorable Bishops Mlodzieyowski, Massalski, and Ostrowski, who occupied high positions of State and who were ready to sell their country and honor for Russian gold. The Sejm elected a committee of thirty to deal with the various matters presented. On September 18, 1773, the Committee formally signed the treaty of cession, renouncing all claims of Poland to the territories taken from her.

Second Partition

TODO Constitution of third may, war of constitution,, targowica

Third Partition

TODO Kosciuszko uprising

Russian part included 120,000km˛ and 1.2 million people with
Wilno, Prussian part 55,000 km˛ and 1 million people with Warsaw, Austrian 47,000km˛ and 1.2 million.

Consequences

TODO trauma for Poles, neverending source of troubles for Europe (alliance with Napoleon, uprisings: 1830-1,1846,1848,1863,1905...)

See also:
History of Poland.