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New York
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New York

Alternate meanings: New York (disambiguation)

New York
(In Detail) (Full size)
State nickname: Empire State

Other U.S. States
Capital Albany
Largest City New York
Governor George Pataki
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water
 - % water
Ranked 27th
141,205 kmē
122,409 kmē
18,795 kmē
 - Total (2000)
 - Density
Ranked 3rd
Admittance into Union
 - Order
 - Date

July 26, 1788
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
40°29'40"N to 45°0'42"N
71°47'25"W to 79°45'54"W
455 km
530 km
1,629 meters
305 meters
0 meters
ISO 3166-2:US-NY

New York is a state in the northeastern United States and its U.S. postal abbreviation is NY. It is sometimes called New York State when there is need to distinguish it from New York City.

Table of contents
1 History
2 Law and Government
3 Geography
4 Economy
5 Agriculture
6 Demographics
7 Important cities and towns
8 Education
9 Professional sports teams
10 Miscellanea
11 External links


See: History of New York

New York was one of the thirteen colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution.

Law and Government

See: List of New York Governors

As in all fifty states, the head of the executive branch of government is a Governor. The legislative branch is called the Legislature, and consists of a Senate and an Assembly. For many years, the two houses of the state legislature have been controlled by different political parties, making legislation and particularly budgeting difficult. Unlike most States, the New York electoral law permits electoral fusion, and New York ballots tend to have, in consequence, a larger number of parties on them, some being permanent minor parties that seek to influence the major parties and others being ephemeral parties formed to give major-party candidates an additional line on the ballot.

New York's subordinate political units are its 62 counties. Smaller officially recognized units are Towns and Villages. See: List of New York counties; Towns and Villages are listed in each county with the exception of those counties within New York City.


New York borders Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Canada (Quebec and Ontario), Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the Atlantic Ocean. The state includes everything from skyscrapers in Manhattan to rivers, mountains, and lakes in upstate New York. Niagara Falls is one of the chief attractions. Three major islands form an important part of the state: Long Island, Manhattan Island, and Staten Island. The Hudson River flows through the eastern portion of the state.

"Upstate" is a common term used to refer to parts of New York outside of New York City and Long Island. The upstate region includes the Catskill Mountains and the Adirondack Mountains, the Finger Lakes and the Great Lakes, and other important rivers, such as the Hudson, Mohawk, Genesee, and the Susquehanna. Additional large lakes are Lake George, Lake Champlain, and Oneida Lake. The highest elevation in New York is Mount Marcy in the Adirondacks.


New York City dominates the economy of the state. It is the leading center of banking, finance and communication in the United States and is the location of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) on Wall Street, Manhattan. In 1999, the total gross state product was $755 billion, second only to California in the nation. Its 2000 Per Capita Personal Income was $34,547, placing it 4th in the nation. New York's agricultural outputs are dairy products, cattle and other livestock, vegetables, nursery stock, and apples. Its industrial outputs are printing and publishing, scientific instruments, electric equipment, machinery, chemical products, and tourism.


New York State is an agricultural leader, ranking within the top five states for a number of products including dairy, apples, cherries, cabbage, potatoes, onions, maple syrup and many other products. The state has about a quarter of its land in farms and produced 3.4 billion dollars in agricultural products in 2001. The south shore of Lake Ontario provides the right mix of soils and microclimate for many apple, cherry, plum, pear and peach orchards. Apples are also grown in the Hudson Valley and near Lake Champlain. The south shore of Lake Erie and the southern Finger Lakes hillsides have many vinyards. The Finger Lakes area is famous for award-winning farm wineries.

Dairy farm near Oxford, New York, July 2001

New York was heavily glaciated in the ice age leaving much of the state with deep, fertile, though somewhat rocky soils. Row crops, including hay, corn (also known as maize), wheat, oats, barley, and soybeans, are grown. Particularly in the western part of the state, sweet corn, peas, carrots, squash, cucumbers and other vegetables are grown. The Hudson and Mohawk valleys are known for pumpkins and blueberries. The glaciers also left numerous swampy areas, which have been drained for the rich humus soils called muckland which is mostly used for onions, potatoes, celery and other vegetables. Dairy farms are present throughout much of the state. Cheese is a major product, often produced by Amish or Mennonite farm cheeseries. New York is rich in nectar-producing plants and is a major honey-producing state. The honeybees are also used for pollination of fruits and vegetables. Most commercial beekeepers are migratory, taking their hives to southern states for the winter. Most cities have Farmers' markets which are well supplied by local truck farmers.


As of 2000, New York is the third largest state in population after California and Texas, with a population of 18,976,457.

Important cities and towns

Albany is the state capital, and New York City is by far the largest city. (See also List of cities in New York)

Its major cities and towns are:


Primary and Secondary Education

The New York State Board of Regents and the State Education Department control all public primary and secondary education in the state.

Colleges and universities

Besides the many private colleges and universities in the state, New York, like many other states, operates its own system of institutions of higher learning known as the State University of New York System or SUNY. In addition, New York City, in conjunction with the state, operates a system of public colleges (CUNY).

Professional sports teams


USS New York was named in honor of this state.
The state bird: Eastern Bluebird, (Sialia sialis).
The state flower: Rose.
The state tree: Sugar maple (Acer saccharum).
The state fruit: Apple.
The state gemstone: Garnet.
The state motto: Excelsior (ever higher).

External links

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